When recession of the gingiva occurs, the body loses a natural defense against both bacterial penetration and trauma. When gum recession is a problem, gum reconstruction using grafting techniques is an option.
When there is only minor recession, some healthy gingiva often remains and protects the tooth, so that no treatment other than modifying home care practices is necessary. However, when recession reaches the mucosa, the first line of defense against bacterial penetration is lost.
In addition, gum recession often results in root sensitivity to hot and cold foods as well as an unsightly appearance of the gum and tooth. When significant, gym recession can predispose to worsening recession and expose the root surface, which is softer than enamel, leading to root caries and root gouging.
A gingival graft is designed to solve these problems. There are two types of tissue grafts, Connective tissue grafts to gain root coverage. Reasons to cover the root surface include 1) having sensitivity on a tooth to hot or cold 2) wanting to improve the esthetics of your gum tissue, 3) to prevent chances of root decay. Soft tissue grafts to stop the recession. taking surface layer of tissue and attaching it to the area with little or no keratinized (attached)tissue. The gingival graft procedures are highly predictable and results in a stable healthy band of attached tissue around the tooth.